lundi 8 avril 2019

Les 400 ans de l'arrivée de l'auteur du manuscrit "l'Anonyme de Carpentras" en Martinique

Sur la publication en ligne du manuscrit de l’Anonyme de Carpentras


Jean-Pierre Moreau publia en 2007 un manuscrit incroyable qu’il avait découvert dans la bibliothèque de Monseigneur d’Imguibert, conservée à Carpentras. Cette trouvaille fît l’effet d’un coup de tonnerre quand l’inventeur de la « Relation d’un voyage infortuné fait aux Indes Occidentales… » la présenta devant un aéropage de chercheurs en archéologie et anthropologie C’était lors du congrès d’archéologie de la Caraïbe, réuni à Cayenne en 1987. 

Des historiens présents émirent des réserves quant à l’authenticité de ce document tant il était inattendu et exceptionnel. La probité de Jean-Pierre Moreau fût à demi-mot mise en cause. N’était-il pas l’auteur d’un faux ? Il était inimaginable qu’un tel document existât et qu’aucun spécialiste des chroniques anciennes, en plus de 300 ans d’existence ne l’eût repéré. Depuis les choses sont rentrées dans l’ordre. 

Nous devons rendre hommage au chercheur Jean-Pierre Moreau pour la découverte de cet admirable document, au conservateur des bibliothèques universitaires des Antilles, Sylvain Houdebert, pour avoir estimé la juste valeur d’un tel document et avoir persuadé la Bibliothèque nationale de France de le mettre en ligne. 

Cette narration de voyage a apporté un éclairage nouveau sur les chroniques anciennes sur les « caraïbes ». Elle a mis en lumière nombre de zones d’ombres sur des pratiques sociales restées jusque-là totalement incomprises et non expliquées. J’ose écrire que le manuscrit de l’Anonyme de Carpentras est aux chroniques anciennes sur les callinagos, ce que fût la pierre de Rosette pour Champollion dans sa compréhension du mystère des hiéroglyphes !

Pourtant, ce journal n’aurait peut-être jamais dû nous parvenir. Sa lecture montre à combien de risques de disparitions ce précieux document a échappé. Et même jusqu’au retour à Dieppe enfin ! Durant la nuit du 10 septembre 1620, dans le port, un navire dont l’ancre avait dérapé à cause de la tempête, s’était rapproché du navire du Capitaine Fleury. L’Anonyme relate, « Sa proue touchant la poupe du nôtre, il le heurta si fort que toute la chambre du capitaine Fleury fut rompue et brisée, et toutes ses cartes et instruments marins et autres hardes furent perdus à la mer… » (Moreau 1987 : 230) Et si le manuscrit avait été perdu ? 

Ce manuscrit écrit 15 ans avant l’arrivée à la Martinique du père dominicain Raymond Breton, apporte la clé pour comprendre nombre des comportements, de croyances, de façons de vivre et de penser au sein de la société des Callinagos. Leur nom, caraïbe, n’est pas leur véritable nom. Les français venant du Brésil, entre les années 1504 et 1560, relâchaient en Martinique sur le chemin de retour vers la France. Ceux-ci, qui avaient fréquenté les Tupis du sud du Brésil, (un indien en valant un autre), ont appelé les Indiens des îles, les Caraïbes. Le mot signifie « Chamane puissant » en langue tupi. Caraïbe est une confusion avec les mots Caribe en espagnol, déformation de callina, cariba, caribe. Le nom caribe en espagnol s’est traduit par carib en anglais. Finalement les habitants amérindiens des Petites Antilles furent nommés les caraïbes alors que leur véritable nom etait « Callinago, callinagoïm au pluriel », comme l’a précisé le Père Breton (1666 : 61) dans son dictionnaire Caraïbe Français publié à Auxerre en 1666.

Le manuscrit de l’anonyme de Carpentras traduit les sentiments de curiosité, d’intérêt, d’admiration, voire d’affection, que porte le narrateur à la société callinago. C’est un ouvrage que tous ceux qui s’intéressent aux apports historiques, culturels et linguistiques de diverses cultures amérindiennes à la culture créole, notamment ceux des tupis du Brésil, des tainos des Grandes Antilles et des callinagos, devraient lire. Analysé, critiqué, replacé dans le contexte de son époque, ce précieux texte est un guide de l’enquête de terrain. Il est l’expression d’une vision tolérante des façons de vivre d’une société, d’une culture très éloignée de celle du narrateur. Les apports du manuscrit établissent des liens avec des informations contenues dans les narrations postérieures sur les « caraïbes ». Ils les éclairent, les rendent cohérentes et donnent du sens à ce qui, autrement, n’aurait pas été compris. Le manuscrit de l’Anonyme de Carpentras est un témoignage de première main sur une société exotique disparue. Il devrait être étudié en milieux scolaire et universitaire. Il fournit un cadre pour un apprentissage d’une méthodologie de la recherche. L’étude de ce document exceptionnel, distrayant et instructif, serait aussi de nature à susciter la réflexion de futurs citoyens sur la nécessaire prise en compte des différences culturelles qui caractérisent les diverses communautés qui composent la société française d’aujourd’hui, pour une meilleure cohésion sociale et la lutte contre les extrémismes.


H. Petitjean Roget


Lien vers l'article : http://blog.manioc.org/2019/04/les-400-ans-de-larrivee-de-lauteur-du.html

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